“The centuries-old medicine-predominated approach to health has failed to eliminate sickness and suffering; this is because medicine alone is too superficial to influence all the innumerable values that constitute the structure of life and its evolution.
“Only a holistic approach that takes into consideration all aspects of mind and body together can be successful in handling health.”—Maharishi
HEALTH CARE is the science and art of realizing perfect health. The ideal of perfect health is realised by handling health from the level from which it emerges in the field of immortality. Enlivening the transcendental, unmanifest field of immortality at the basis of existence spontaneously nourishes and integrates all levels of life. This is the field of Total Knowledge of health, located in the field of the science and technology of Total Natural Law, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature.
The Global Country of World Peace offers the Consciousness-Based Health Care System, Which is Prevention-Oriented and Free from Harmful Side-Effects
The Global Country of World Peace offers the complete knowledge of Natural Law available in Maharishi Vedic Science and Technology, which has been brought out to the world by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi over the past 50 years.
The Global Country of World Peace offers this complete knowledge of Natural Law to each field of life, including Health Care, so that responsible leaders can take recourse to higher intelligence—the total Natural Law that peacefully administers the universe without a problem—to create a prevention-oriented and problem-free government, and national and international life filled with peace, good health, prosperity and fulfillment.
In the field of Health—Global Country of World Peace offers the Vedic Approach to Health that Maharishi has introduced to the world.
Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health is the consciousness-based, prevention-oriented, natural health care system, which enlivens the basic reality of the physiology—consciousness—to restore physiological balance, create frictionless communication in the physiology, improve immune function, and restore an ideal relationship between the physiology and the intelligence which administers the body and the whole universe, so that the life of the individual becomes a field of all possibilities.
Creating a healthy individual and collective health of the whole society are essential for world peace, because the suffering of the sick is a complete state of peacelessness. When millions of people are suffering in this way, the world will never be at peace.
Governments Desire to Create a Healthy Society, But Are Failing To Do So Everywhere in the World
It is naturally the desire of every government to prevent anyone in the nation from falling sick, and to bring relief to those who are suffering from chronic illness. But no government on earth has come close to achieving the goal of creating a disease-free society.
Even the United States, which is spending $1.5 trillion on health care annually, has 100 million of its citizens chronically ill. Furthermore, the medical system the U.S. and other nations promote has been repeatedly described in the scientific literature as highly hazardous to health, both from immediate side-effects and from the creation of new diseases.
In the U.S., medical practice itself is the fourth leading cause of mortality, killing as many as 200,000 people a year through medical mistakes and hazardous side-effects. There are by now thousands of articles in the scientific literature warning of the hazards of modern medicine, and this high heap of hazards grows higher every day.
The Great Deficiencies of Modern Medicine
The deficiencies in the current world health care system are manifold and urgently in need of redress:
1. Lack of Knowledge of Prevention
The citizens in every nation are violating the Laws of Nature every minute of every day. This causes stresses, strains and imbalances in the physiology, which eventually become diseases. Why do they do such things, when they will lead to so much suffering?
They violate the Laws of Nature because their education has failed them. Education today with its segmented approach only partially develops the brain. Without holistic brain functioning, everyone grows up violating Natural Law, i.e. making mistakes that injure and disrupt the healthy functioning of the physiology.
But now there is a great innovation in education: Consciousness-Based Education, which holistically develops the brain, leading to life spontaneously in harmony with Natural Law. Through this approach, the behavioral mistakes (e.g. stressful behaviors, ingestion of poisons, damaging diet, etc.) that are the very basis of disease-creation are prevented, and thought and behavior naturally become nourishing and health-creating.
Scientific evidence has confirmed repeatedly that students who develop their total brain functioning through Consciousness-Based Education have dramatically lowered levels of all disease, and spontaneously avoid health-damaging behaviors. Introducing these principles universally in education would by itself in time virtually eliminate disease in society.
2. Lack of Knowledge of Consciousness as the Basis of Physiology, and of How to Operate in the Field of Consciousness to Eliminate Disease
The most important scientific discovery of our time is that physiology and consciousness are one and the same reality, and that therefore it is possible to achieve from the level of consciousness alone any necessary correction in an imbalanced and diseased physiology.
Professor Tony Nader, M.D., Ph.D. (who received his weight in gold in 1998 for his extraordinary scientific discoveries, and who has now been honored as Maharaj Adhiraj Rajaraam, first ruler of the Global Country of World Peace) has studied the relationship between the 40 aspects of Veda and Vedic Literature—the basic impulses of Nature’s intelligence vibrating in the Unified Field of Natural Law, the unbounded ocean of consciousness—and the structures and functions of the human physiology.
He discovered that the total intelligence of Nature, which manages 100 billion galaxies, is also fully expressed in our DNA, in each of the trillions of cells of the body, and in the human physiology as a whole.
His scientific conclusion is that the physical reality of the human physiology is in reality abstract consciousness—the physiology is identical with the consciousness or cosmic intelligence whose infinite organizing power maintains the orderly evolution of the universe.
This opens a new range of possibilities for treatment of diseases that have been relegated by modern medicine to the chronic category, i.e. diseases that modern medicine cannot effectively treat.
By using specific vibrations of consciousness, or Vedic sounds, it is possible to stimulate the physiology from its very basis in consciousness to restore balance and a frictionless flow of communication in the physiology, bringing relief where none had been thought possible. This also has been strongly confirmed in published scientific research. Universal application of these Technologies of Consciousness in health care can create real and rapid progress towards your goal of establishing a disease-free society in your nation.
3. Modern Medicine Focuses on the Parts Not the Whole
Modern medicine focuses on the parts of the physiology in an isolated manner. It focuses on the symptoms of disease when the disease is already manifested, and then tries through drugs and other localized therapies to correct this isolated area where pain has arisen.
In this system, the whole physiology remains unattended, and therefore the well-being of the whole is not served.
By giving the patients drugs that are artificially made, based upon the principle of the active ingredient, the symptom of the disease may be relieved in one place in the physiology, but other parts of the physiology are thrown out of balance by the drug, creating hazardous side-effects like discomfort and sickness, and sowing the seeds of new diseases.
This approach has also led to the birth of new bacteria untreatable by modern medicine, particularly present in hospitals, ironically making hospitals amongst the most dangerous places for health.
The Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health by contrast handles health holistically from that level of intelligence that handles the whole body—the body’s own inner intelligence. Its approaches enliven this enriching, nourishing intelligence in the whole body, relieving the difficulty being faced while improving physiological function generally, and creating the basis for prevention of disease.
4. The Consciousness-Based Approaches of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health
The Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health is a comprehensive, scientifically validated system of natural health care for creating perfect health and a disease-free society. It includes 40 Vedic approaches to create balance in individual consciousness and physiology, and a highly coherent collective consciousness as the basis of a healthy, peaceful society.
The Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health promotes health from the field of consciousness. The basis of human physiology is the field of human intelligence, or consciousness. The Vedic expression: Chinne Mule Naiva Shakha Na Patram—No branches, no leaves in the absence of the root—reveals the unfortunate reality of existing medical systems in the world.
It is surprising that the basis of health—consciousness—is not being attended to in present systems of prevention and cure.
The Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health includes the following procedures for taking care of the root of life so all the branches, leaves and flowers blossom in good health:
1. The Maharishi Technologies of Consciousness, the Transcendental Meditation and its advanced techniques, including Yogic Flying, handle health from its most basic level—the field of consciousness, or pure intelligence. Their regular practice has been found to promote balanced functioning on all levels of mind, body and behavior, to reverse the detrimental effects of the aging process, and to reverse trends of ill health.
2. The Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology enlivens consciousness in specific areas of the physiology, and thereby contributes to removal of disease and restoration of perfect health. These Vedic technologies utilize subtle impulses of sound, or Vedic vibration, to enliven the inner intelligence of the body and revitalize its physiological expression. The result is that abnormality is transformed into normal physiological functioning. Recent controlled scientific studies have shown decreased signs and symptoms of chronic pain, arthritis and other chronic disorders with the Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology.
3. The Maharishi Vedic Sound Therapy is the direct application of Professor Nader’s research (see above), which revealed the correspondence of Vedic sounds and the human physiology. This unique approach uses Vedic sounds that, according to his research, correspond to a specific quality in the human physiology. The structuring dynamics of the Vedic sounds, therefore, are able to resonate with the corresponding physical structure in the physiology and, in turn, stimulate the orderly structure of nature’s intelligence within the body to repair itself and restore good health.
4. Physiological procedures to enliven the body’s inner intelligence:
a. Maharishi Nadi Vigyan, the science of pulse diagnosis, explains that all influences on health—including physical, mental, seasonal and environmental factors—are reflected in the pulse. Anyone can learn to assess balance or imbalance through their pulse in order to take timely preventive measures.
b. Diet and related digestion is a pillar in the maintenance of good health. The Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health includes knowledge of balanced diet suitable to the state of health of the individual to allow diet and digestion to reach their highest levels.
c. Vedic herbal food supplements are based on the characteristic qualities of intelligence at different levels of the plant kingdom, which are suitable for restoring proper functioning of the corresponding specific areas of the physiology.
d. Daily and seasonal routines in harmony with Natural Law including behavior and exercise, for restoring and maintaining balance are a key aspect of this complete approach to health.
e. The most important seasonal routine recommended by Maharishi Vedic Medicine is the set of physiological purification procedures, known as the Maharishi Rejuvenation Program. This program should be applied seasonally to remove accumulated physiological toxins of the season.
5. The effects of the near environment on health, including building architecture and community design, are taken care of by the Vedic science of architecture, Maharishi Sthapatya Veda. This is the knowledge of healthy architecture in accord with Natural Law. This approach creates and supports health from the standpoint of the near environment, greatly extending the knowledge of modern environmental medicine.
6. The science of Maharishi Jyotish calculates the effects of the distant environment—the cosmic counterparts of human physiology—on health. This is the basis of the technology for diagnosis and prediction of adverse influences on health. Maharishi Yagyas neutralize unwanted influences and augment positive influences on health and well-being. (Click on left chart to view at larger size.)
7. Maharishi Effect: Maharishi Technologies of Consciousness also improve collective health by dissolving social stress through the group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs, including Yogic Flying. This is called the Maharishi Effect—validated by more than 50 replications including 20 published studies to generate an influence of coherence and harmony that results in reduction of negative social trends such as poverty, crime, accidents and illness, and enhancement of positive social trends.
Governments Should Pride Themselves on Preventing Disease
Governments today unfortunately pride themselves on how many hospitals they open, how much expensive equipment is available, how many radical surgeries are done, and how many people have access to medicines with side-effects that produce new diseases in those who take them.
This is all back to front. A government should pride itself on preventing disease. It should pride itself on having to close hospitals because no-one is sick. It should pride itself that no-one’s health disintegrates to the point that they need to be cut open by a surgeon. It should pride itself that there are no citizens appearing in clinics and trauma centers complaining of the devastating effects of the drugs they have taken for some previous disease they were suffering from.
Medicine Should be Free of Negative Side-Effects
The Hippocratic oath says: At least do no harm. The medical profession around the world violates this oath millions of times a day.
Now there is available to every government and all medical professionals systematic prevention and consciousness-based cure that is completely natural and free of negative side-effects, and produces results that are not available in modern medicine even at a very, very high price.
This consciousness-based health care system enlivens the inner intelligence of the body and thereby maintains the vitality of the physiology, and also maintains a healthy relationship between the body and its counterparts in the physiology of the near and far environments, holistically benefiting health without creating any harmful side-effects at all.
Scientists Do What Works Best
True scientists dispassionately examine what works, and implement that. Now is the time to look at the whole medical system in this light. The time is calling out for total reform of medical practice to be prevention-oriented, harmful side-effect free and effective in treating even the most intransigent illnesses.
The present system of health care was instituted in national law before governments realized that it produced such a high heap of hazards to human life. That mistake in national law must now be corrected in the light of the new scientific evidence available today.
The people of every nation are depending on their government to save them from disease. Denying them the most effective and beneficial health care is a terrible injustice, and is leading to untold suffering and premature death.
When the citizens of a nation grow up using their total brain potential, they will not make mistakes and create problems, and they will not fall sick. The government will be delighted to see problems simply not arising in national life. This will mean the government has achieved a new level of efficiency in administration, and fulfilled the ideal for every government—a prevention-oriented and problem-free administration.
<strong>Summary of Scientific Research Relevant to Health</strong>—Click here to learn more
Summary of Scientific Research Relevant to Health
The Transcendental Meditation Program and Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to HealthSelected from more than 600 research studies documenting holistic development of life through the Transcendental Meditation program and its advanced techniques, including Yogic Flying
Over 600 scientific studies verify the benefits of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program for mental potential, health, social behavior, and the environment.1 This research has been conducted at more than 250 universities and research institutions in 33 countries. The conclusion of this research document is that this program promotes balance in all aspects of physiological functioning, including a reversal of the detrimental effects of the ageing process, while also increasing balance in mind, behavior, and society.
The Transcendental Meditation Program is a central element of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health, which makes use of the knowledge and program of all forty areas of the Vedic Literature to maintain good health and promote a disease-free society. This includes knowledge of the influence of the near and far environment on the individual’s health; and how to promote health by creating balance in the individual’s relationship with the environment, including the design and construction of homes and buildings to be most healthy, developing the collective health of society, and bringing support to health from the cosmic influences that effect human life. Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health also includes knowledge of how to diagnose, in the pulse, the degree of balance in the relationship of consciousness and its expression, the physiology. It also contains knowledge of how balance is promoted or restored through proper daily and seasonal routines, proper diet, exercise, physiological purification, and herbal preparations.
Most importantly, Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health includes knowledge of the field of intelligence—Transcendental Consciousness—the Unified Field of Natural Law, which is the basis of the human physiology. Professor Tony Nader, M.D., Ph.D., has discovered that the Laws of Nature which structure the universe, and are available in Transcendental Consciousness, are also the inner intelligence that gives rise to the structure and functions of human physiology.2 By enlivening this fundamental intelligence, the Transcendental Meditation Program produces a profoundly integrating effect on body and mind.
This section contains the following:
(1) an overview of major health-related research findings on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation, with numbered references to the original scientific papers listed at the end of this document;
(2) a more detailed description of several important research studies;
(3) a consideration of the uniqueness of Transcendental Meditation;
(4) findings of research on promotion of health through some of the other procedures of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health; and
(5) scientific research references cited in the text.
1. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FINDINGS—TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION
Some of the research findings on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Program significant for health include the following:
Improved General Health
• Lower Health Insurance Utilization Rates: Significantly Fewer Hospital Inpatient Days, and Outpatient Visits in All Age Categories; Fewer Inpatient Admissions for All Major Categories of Disease (1, 2)
• Lower Health Insurance Utilization Rates: Less Hospital Expenditures in All Age Categories (2)
• Longitudinal Reduction in Health Care Costs (3, 4)
• Improved Self-Health Rating (5–9)
• Improvements in Physical and Mental Well-Being in Individuals under Medical Care (10)
• Improvements in Patients with Chronic Headaches (10)
• Improvements in Patients with Migraine (11)
• Decreased Need for Analgesics (5)
• Benefits for the Elderly (6):
—Increased Cognitive Flexibility and Behavioral Flexibility
—Improved Mental Health
—More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure
• Benefits for the Elderly: Increased Longevity (6, 12)
• Younger Biological Age Compared to Population Norms and Control Subjects (13)
Improved Health of the Cardiovascular System
• Decreased Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects (14–17)
• Reduction of Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels in Normotensive Subjects (6, 18, 19)
• Decreased Serum Cholesterol Levels in Normal and Hypercholesterolemic Patients (18, 20, 21)
• Improvements in Patients with Angina Pectoris (22):
—Improved Exercise Tolerance and Increased Maximum Workload
—Delayed Appearance of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities during Exercise: Delayed Onset of ST Segment Depression
—Decreased Double Product
• Reduction of Angina Episodes and Improved Exercise Tolerance among Patients with Cardiovascular Syndrome X (162)
• Reduction of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis (163)
• Lower Baseline Levels of Heart Rate (23, 24)
• Improved Cardiovascular Efficiency (22)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Diseases of the Heart or Blood Vessels (1, 2)
Improved Health of the Respiratory System
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Nose, Throat, and Lung Diseases (1)
• Improvements in Patients with Bronchial Asthma:
—Reduced Severity of Symptoms (25–28)
—Reduced Airway Resistance (25–27)
• Decreased Use of Cigarettes (7, 9, 29–33)
Improved Health of the Nervous System
• Increased Integration of Brain Functioning (34–42)
• Increased Blood Flow to the Brain (43–46)
• Increased Neurological Efficiency:
—Increased Efficiency of Information Transfer in the Brain (47–53)
—Improved Spinal Reflex Activity (54–55)
—Improvements in Reaction-Time Measures that are Correlated with Intelligence (56)
• Mobilization of Hidden Reserves of the Brain: Wider Distribution of Cortical Response to Somatosensory Stimuli (57)
• Increased Cognitive Flexibility, Increased Learning Ability in the Elderly (6)
• Faster Processing of Cognitively Complex Information in the Elderly as Measured by Event-Related Potentials (50, 52)
Improved Health of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Increased Autonomic Stability (58)
• Lower Baseline Levels of Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses, Respiration Rate, Heart Rate, and Plasma Lactate (23)
• Increased Autonomic Stability during Task Performance (7)
• Improved Stress Reactivity: Lower Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity; Lower Blood Pressure Reactivity to Stress; More Normal Resting Blood Pressure; Lower Resting Epinephrine Level (59)
Improved Perceptual Ability
• Increased Perceptual Flexibility (60)
• Increased Vigilance and Improved Capacity for Selective Attention (6)
• Increased Field Independence: Growth of a Stable Internal Frame of Reference (61–63)
Improved Mind-Body Coordination
• Faster Reactions (24, 56, 64, 65)
• Increased Psychomotor Speed (66)
Beneficial Effects in Disorders of the Nervous System
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Diseases of the Nervous System (1)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Diseases of Nerves, Eyes, or Ears (2)
• Improvements in Patients with Epilepsy (21):
—Reduced Frequency and Severity of Seizures
—Reduction of Abnormal EEG Features
—Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite Levels
Improved Health of the Endocrine-Reproductive System
• Increased Stability and Sensitivity of Control of Hormone Levels (67, 68)
• Increased Endrocrinological Efficiency: Lower Baseline Levels of Pituitary Hormones (TSH, Growth Hormone, and Prolactin) with Maintenance of Adrenal, Thyroid Hormone, and Insulin Levels in Long-Term Practitioners of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Technique (67, 68)
• Increased Plasma Level of Arginine Vasopressin, Associated with Body Fluid Balance and with Learning and Memory (69)
• Improved Glucose Tolerance (70)
• Normal Neuroendocrine Reactivity: Healthy Neuroendocrine Pattern in Type A Subjects Practicing Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Technique (71)
• Hormone Levels Indicating Younger Biological Age (72)
• Improved Stress Reactivity: Lower Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity (59, 73, 74); Lower Resting Epinephrine Level (59)
• Lower Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Levels Indicating Less Serious Illness and Slower Ageing (75)
• Lower Melatonin Turnover; Lower Levels of Melatonin Turnover Associated with Lower Stress (76)
• More Adaptive Biochemical Response to Stress: Decreased Baseline Cortisol and Decreased Overall Cortisol During Stress Session; Enhanced Cortisol Response During Stressful Challenge with Rapid Return to Baseline; Decreased TSH Response to Stress; Increased GH Response to Stress; Increased Testosterone Response to Stress. Decreased Plasma Serotonin Relative to Controls for Baseline, Average, and Response to Stress. (In contrast to whole body serotonin metabolism, low plasma serotonin indicates decreased stress and decreased risk of high blood pressure. Low baseline cortisol and enhanced cortisol response to stress is a more stable and adaptive physiological profile.) (77)
• Endocrine Pattern Associated with Lower Stress: Lower Excretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone; Higher Excretion of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate and Serotinin Metabolite 5-HIAA; Lower Excretion of Sodium, Calcium, Zinc, and Sodium/Potassium Ratio; Lower Anxiety; Less Mood Disturbance (78)
• Biochemical Indications of Decreased Stress (Lower Morning Levels of ACTH and Beta-endorphins) (79)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Irregularities of Metabolism (1)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Disorders of the Glands, Metabolism, or the Immune System (2)
• Shorter Stay in the Hospital for Child Delivery (1)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Genital and Urinary Diseases (1, 2)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Birth Defects (1, 2)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Perinatal Disorders (2)
Improved Health of the Haematologic-Immunologic System
• Decreased Hospital Admission Rate for Infectious Diseases (1)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Virus or Bacterial Infections (2)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Disorders of the Glands, Metabolism, or the Immune System (2)
• Benefits for Individuals with Allergies (5)
• Fewer Infections (5)
• Reduced Inflammation of the Gums (80)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Blood Disorders (1)
• Lower Hospital Admissions Rate for Disorders of the Blood or Spleen (2)
Improved Health of the Musculo-Skeletal System
• Fewer Hospital Admissions for Bone and Muscle Diseases (1)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Disorders of the Bones, Muscles, or Ligaments (2)
• Reduced musculo-skeletal complaints (81)
• Reduction of craniomandibular stress (82)
Improved Health of the Digestive System
• Fewer Hospital Admissions for Intestinal Disorders and Irregularities of Metabolism (1)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Digestive Disorders (2)
• Improved Periodontal Health (80)
Improved health of the dermatologic system
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Skin Disorders (1)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Disorders of the Skin, Nails, or Hair (2)
Better Health for Mother and Child during Pregnancy and Childbirth
• Fewer Medical Complaints during Pregnancy (83)
• Less Anxiety during Pregnancy and Childbirth (83)
• Less Pain during Pregnancy and Childbirth (83)
• Shorter Duration of Labour (83)
• Lower Frequency of Vacuum or Forceps Delivery and Other Operative Interventions during Labor (83)
• Shorter Stay in the Hospital for Child Delivery (1)
• Increased Quiet Alertness in Newborns of Mothers Practicing Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program (84)
Improved Health Habits
• Decreased Use of Cigarettes (7, 9, 29–33)
• Decreased Use of Alcohol (7, 29–32, 85–87)
• Decreased Drug Abuse (29–32, 88, 89)
Improved Mental Health
• Increased Psychological Health (6, 7, 40, 41, 90–101)
• Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Integration, Unity, and Wholeness of Personality (90–92)
• Enhanced Inner Well-Being (6)
• Decreased Anxiety (93, 94)
• Increased Emotional Stability (8, 81, 86, 89)
• Increased Enthusiasm for Work (7)
Benefits in Psychiatry
• Lower Health Insurance Utilization for All Mental Disorders (1)
• Lower Hospital Admission Rate for Mental Health Problems and Substance Abuse (2)
• Improvements in Anxiety Neurosis (102)
• Improvements in Psychosomatic Disorders (28)
• Improvements in Addictive Disorders, Including Alcoholism and Drug Abuse (32, 87)
• More Effective Rehabilitation of Patients following Discharge from a Vocational Rehabilitation Unit (87):
—Greater Ability to Maintain Employment
—More Often Maintained on Out-Patient Care Alone
• Improvements in Aggressive Psychiatric Patients:
—Decreased Frequency and Severity of Attacks of Aggressive Behavior (21)
—Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite and Plasma Cortisol Levels (21)
• Improvements in Autism: Decreased Echolalic Behavior (103)
• Benefits for Mentally Retarded Subjects:
—Improved Social Behavior (104)
—Improved Cognitive Functioning (21, 104)
—Increased Intelligence (21, 104)
—Improved Physical Health (104)
—Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite and Plasma Cortisol Levels (21)
• Improvements in Post-Traumatic Adjustment Problems (86):
—Decreased Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
—Decreased Alcohol Consumption
—Improved Employment Status
—Decreased Family Problems
Improved Health of Society
The following research findings demonstrate that one percent of a population practicing Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation or the square root of one percent collectively practicing Maharishi’s TM-Sidhi Program radiate a powerful influence of coherence and harmony in collective consciousness, neutralizing negative tendencies and promoting positive trends in society as a whole. This effect, known as the Maharishi Effect in the scientific research literature, has been measured at the city, state, national, and international levels during specific periods, as indicated by the published research studies cited below:
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by a Weekly Index of Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (USA, 1979–1985; Canada, 1983–1985) (105, 106, 107)
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by Reductions of Weekly Fatalities Due to Accidents Other than Motor Vehicle Fatalities (Canada, 1983–1985) (106)
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by Improvements on a Monthly Index Including Violent Fatalities (Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide), Cigarette Consumption, and Worker-Days Lost in Strikes (Canada, 1972–1986) (106, 107)
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by Improvement on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Deaths Due to Accidents (other than Motor Vehicle), Notifiable Diseases, Alcohol Consumption, and Cigarette Consumption, Controlling for Economic Changes (United States, 1970–1986) (108)
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by Improvement on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, and Cigarette Consumption, Controlling for Economic Changes (Canada, 1972–1986) (108)
• Improved Quality of National Life as Measured by an Index Comprising Data on: Crime, the National Stock Market, and National Mood (Israel, 1983) (109)
• Improved Quality of Life in a State as Measured by an Index Including: Mortality Rate, Cigarette Consumption Rate, Beer Consumption Rate, Motor Vehicle Fatality Rate, Auto Accident Rate, Pollution, Unemployment Rate, and Total Crime Rate (Rhode Island, USA, 1978) (109)
• Improved Quality of Provincial and National Life as Measured by an Index Including: Fetal Deaths, Other Deaths, and Crime (Metro Manila Region and Philippines, 1979–1981) (109)
• Improved Quality of Life in a State: Decreased Crime Rate; Reduced Unemployment Rate; Decreased Traffic Fatality Rate (Iowa, USA, 1979–1986) (110)
• Improved Quality of City Life as Measured by an Index Comprising Data on: Fires, Automobile Accidents, and Crime (Jerusalem, Israel, 1983) (111)
• Decreased Crime (Cities, USA, 1973–1978; Cities and Metropolitan Areas, USA, 1973–1979; Delhi, India, 1980–1981; Washington, D.C., USA, 1981–1983; Jerusalem and Israel, 1983; Puerto Rico, USA, 1984; Metro Manila, Philippines 1984–1985; Iowa, USA, 1979–1986; Merseyside, England 1988–1991) (109–114)
• Decreased Suicide Rate (115)
• Increased Progress towards Peaceful Resolution of Conflict (Major Trouble-Spot Countries, 1978; USA, 1985–1987; Lebanon, 1983–1985; USA–Soviet Union, 1979–1986; Worldwide, 1983–1984; Worldwide, 1983–1985) (116–121)
• More Positive, Evolutionary Statements and Actions of Heads of State and Greater National Support for Their Policies and Leadership (Worldwide, 1983–1984; USA, 1985–1987) (117, 120)
• Increased Harmony in International Affairs (Worldwide, 1978; Worldwide, 1983–1984; USA, 1985–1987; USA–Soviet Union, 1979–1986; Worldwide, 1983–1985) (116, 117, 119–121)
• Improved International Relations: Reduced Conflict Globally, Reduced Terrorism, and Increase in World Index of Stock Prices, during Three Large Assemblies of Participants in Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program (Worldwide, 1983–1985) (121)
• Improved Economy as Measured by a Monthly Index of Inflation and Unemployment, Controlling for Changes in Major Economic Variables (USA and Canada, 1979–1988; USA, 1979–1988) (122–125)
2. DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED STUDIES
The following sample studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Technique and its comprehensive health benefits.
• Less need for hospitalization and outpatient care; decreased incidence of disease. A five-year study of medical care utilization statistics on 2000 people throughout the United States who regularly practiced Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program found that their overall rate of hospitalization was 56% lower than that of norms. The group practicing Transcendental Meditation had fewer hospital admissions in all disease categories compared to the norm—including 87% less hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, 55% less for cancer, 87% less for diseases of the nervous system, and 73% less for nose, throat, and lung problems. They were not different than the norms on non-disease related use of the hospital (for childbirth). The group of participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program also displayed significantly lower levels of hospitalization and outpatient medical visits—less than half the use of norms. (1) These findings were replicated and found to be even stronger in a second study of participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program who also participated in other procedures of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health. (2)
• Reduced health care costs. A longitudinal study in Quebec, Canada, assessed the medical expenditures of 599 individuals for three years before and up to three years after beginning the Transcendental Meditation Program, in comparison to normative data controlling for age, gender, inflation, and year-specific variation. After learning Transcendental Meditation, medical expenditures decreased by an average of 12.4% per year in comparison to the normative data; for those over age 50, the average decrease in medical expenditures was 19% per year. (3)
• Improved cardiovascular health. A well-controlled clinical trial study of 128 elderly African American participants with documented hypertension assessed changes in blood pressure before and after a three-month period in which participants were randomly assigned to three treatments: the Transcendental Meditation Program, a control technique, or usual care. Medication was controlled and blood pressure was measured several times and under several conditions at pretest and posttest. The group who learned Transcendental Meditation showed a significantly greater decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure than either of the other two groups. (16, 17)
• Improved health of the work force. A study of physical and mental health of 798 workers at Sumitomo Heavy Industries was conducted by the Institute of Industrial Health of the Japanese Ministry of Labour. A group of 477 workers who learned Transcendental Meditation were compared to 321 controls. Those who learned Transcendental Meditation reported fewer health complaints, reduced emotional instability, reduced anxiety, and reduced neurotic tendency over a five-month period in comparison to controls. The Transcendental Meditation group also showed improvement in sleep quality and reduction of smoking. (8, 9)
• Reduction of the detrimental effects of aging, and increased health among the elderly. A study conducted at Harvard University randomly assigned 78 elderly participants (average age 81 years) from retirement homes in the Boston area to four groups: Transcendental Meditation, two control techniques, and a no-treatment control group. Each of the three treatment groups participated for a comparable amount of time each day in their respective treatment over a 3-month period. The Transcendental Meditation group displayed significant improvement compared to other groups on systolic blood pressure, on three measures of cognitive flexibility, on word fluency, on self-report measures of behavioral flexibility, and on nurses’ rating of mental health. Most striking was the fact that the Transcendental Meditation group displayed increased longevity: all members of the Transcendental Meditation group were alive after three years, in contrast to a 62.5 percent survival rate for other participants in the retirement homes and slightly higher rates for the other treatment groups in the study. (6) A follow-up study after a number of years also found a 40 per cent increase in longevity among the group that learned the Transcendental Meditation Program in contrast to the control groups. (12)
• Improvements in health-related behavior: Reduction of drug, alcohol, and cigarette consumption. A quantitative meta-analysis of all 19 research studies on this topic was used to determine the overall size of effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program in reducing consumption of drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes. In case, the effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program was highly statistically significant, and was also significantly greater than the effect of other techniques, other preventive programs, or other treatment programs for which quantitative data were available. (32)
3. DESCRIPTION OF TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION WITH REFERENCE TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FINDINGS
Over the last four decades, Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation has been learned by more than four million people worldwide, of all ages, nationalities, and religions. It is a simple, natural, effortless technique that settles the mind to increasingly silent and orderly levels of awareness, allowing one to naturally experience the most silent, expanded state of one’s own consciousness, Transcendental Consciousness, the full creative potential of the mind.
As the mind becomes more settled and wide awake during this technique, the body correspondingly gains a unique physiological state of restful alertness, which releases accumulated stress and increases the stability and flexibility of the nervous system (126). This unique state, combining deep rest with a heightened, yet quiet, state of awareness produces a broad range of benefits as one continues to practice the technique. These benefits are reflected in the increasing ability of the individuals to express their full creative potential, and to achieve success in whatever they undertake without damaging the interests of others.
Unique Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program
The most powerful and rigorous method for drawing conclusions from a large body of scientific research is the statistical procedure of meta-analysis. Four such meta-analyses have been conducted on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program in comparison to other forms of relaxation or meditation. The results are as follows:
(1) A meta-analysis published in American Psychologist reviewed 31 studies, and found that Transcendental Meditation produces more than twice the level of physiological rest than is produced by simply sitting with eyes closed. (23)
(2) A meta-analysis published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology reviewed over 100 research findings, and found Transcendental Meditation to produce more than twice the reduction in trait anxiety (i.e., chronic stress) than produced by other techniques. (94)
(3) A meta-analysis published in the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality showed Transcendental Meditation to increase self-actualization by three times as large an effect as that of other techniques. (22)
(4) Another meta-analysis, published in Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, showed the practice of Transcendental Meditation to result in a greater degree of reduction and more lasting reduction in consumption of alcohol, drugs, and cigarettes than other techniques or preventive education programs. (32)
4. OTHER ASPECTS OF MAHARISHI’S VEDIC APPROACH TO HEALTH
Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health makes use of the 40 aspects of Natural Law—the inner intelligence of the physiology—is the most ancient and scientific system of natural medicine, which uses a variety of approaches that influence all levels of life—consciousness, physiology, behavior, and environment—to prevent sickness and promote health. In addition to making use of the Transcendental Meditation Program to create a profound influence of balance on all these four levels, Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health also offers physiological purification program and herbal food supplements to promote balance in the physiology as the basis for good health.
Effects of the Vedic Physiological Purification Program
• Reduced Serum Lipid Peroxide Levels (Levels reduced by up to 10% as measured three months after treatment. Lipid peroxides, which are fat molecules that have been damaged by free radicals, are felt to be important in atherosclerosis. Lipid peroxide levels in the blood are often used as a measure of free radical activity.) (127)
• Increased Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) (Increase of 80% three months after treatment; this finding is significant because VIP is responsible for dilating blood vessels and increasing blood flow to the heart.) (127)
• Increased HDL Cholesterol (“good” cholesterol) (Increase of 7.5% three months after treatment among subjects with originally low values of HDL. HDL protects against atherosclerosis and is associated with decreased incidence of heart disease.) (127)
• Normalization of Diastolic Blood Pressure (127)
• Reduction of Total Cholesterol Level (128)
• Physiological Purification, as Indicated by Normalization of Urea and Uric Acid (108)
• Improved Energy, Vitality, Strength, and Stamina (129)
• Improved Appetite and Digestion (129)
• Increased Well-Being and Sense of Youthfulness (129)
• Improved State of Mind and Emotions (129)
• Improved Short-Term and Long-Term Memory (130)
• Increased Alertness and Intelligence (130)
• Decreased Anxiety (127, 129)
• Decreased Depression, Decreased Fatigue, and Decreased Confusion (129)
• Reduction of Previous Health Complaints (128, 129)
• Increased Emotional Stability, Relaxation, and Self-Control (128)
• Increased Extroversion, Sociability, and Competitiveness (128)
Effects of Maharishi Vedic Herbal Food Compounds
1. Maharishi Amrit Kalash Vedic Herbal Food Compound
• Enhanced Immune Response (lymphoproliferation and macrophage producion) (131–134)
• Effective Scavenging of Free Radicals (1000 times more effective than vitamin C, vitamin E, or the drug Probucol) (135–137)
• Antioxidant Protection of Brain Tissue (138)
• Antioxidant Protection Against Chemical Toxicity (139)
• Reduced Cardiovascular Risk Factors:
—Reduction of Platelet Aggregation (140)
—Reduced Oxidation of Human Low-Density Lipoprotein (141, 142)
—Reduced Frequency of Angina Pectoris (143)
—Reduction of Atherosclerosis (144, 145)
• Cancer Prevention and Treatment
—Prevention of Breast Cancer and Regression of Existing Tumours in Laboratory Animals (146, 147)
—Prevention of Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Animals (148)
—Reversion of Neuroblastoma Tumour Cells to Normal Cell Functioning in Tissue Culture Experiments (149)
—Inhibition of Malignant Transformation In Vitro (150)
• Reduced Toxicity of Chemotherapeutic Drugs (137, 151, 152)
• Improvement in Age-Related Cognitive Measures in Adults (153)
2. Other Maharishi Vedic Herbal Food Compounds
• Antioxidant Effect; Scavenging of Free Radicals (154–158)
• Improvement in Diabetes (159)
• Protection Against Kidney and Liver Damage (160)
• Increased Intelligence (161)
(1) Orme-Johnson, D. W. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987.
(2) Orme-Johnson, D. W.; and Herron, R. E. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135–144, 1997.
(3) Herron, R. E. The impact of Transcendental Meditation practice on medical expenditures. Dissertation Abstracts International 53(12): 4219A, 1993.
(4) Herron, R. E.; Hillis, S. L.; Mandarino, J. V.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; and Walton, K. G. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 10: 208–216, 1996.
(5) Farinelli, L. Possibilità di applicazioni della tecnologia della coscienza in aspetti di medicina preventiva: Una ricerca pilota. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Padova at Verona, Verona, Italy, 1981.
(6) Alexander, C. N.; Langer, E.; Newman, R. I.; Chandler, H. M.; and Davies, J. L. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950–964, 1989.
(7) Alexander, C. N.; Swanson, G. C.; Rainforth, M. V.; Carlisle, T. W.; Todd, C. C.; and Oates, R. M. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 1993.
(8) Haratani, T.; and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990.
(9) Haratani, T.; and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.
(10) Lovell-Smith, H. D. Transcendental Meditation—treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician 9: 62–65, April 1982.
(11) Lovell-Smith, H. D. Transcendental Meditation and three cases of migraine. New Zealand Medical Journal 98: 443–445, 1985.
(12) Alexander, C.; Schneider, R.; Langer, E.; Newman, R.; Chandler, H.; Davies, J.; Barnes, V.; and Rainforth, M. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: A 15-year follow-up on the effects of Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and relaxation. Circulation 93: 19 (Abstract), 1996.
(13) Wallace, R. K.; Dillbeck, M.; Jacobe, E.; and Harrington, B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53–58, 1982.
(14) Wallace, R. K.; et al. Decreased blood pressure in hypertensive subjects who practiced meditation. Circulation 45–46 (Suppl. 11): 516 (Abstract), 1972.
(15) Blackwell, B.; Hanenson, I. B.; Bloomfield, S. S.; Magenheim, H. G.; Nidich, S. I.; and Gartside, P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: A controlled pilot experiment. Psychosomatic Medicine 37: 86 (Abstract), 1975.
(16) Schneider, R. H.; Staggers, F.; Alexander, C. N.; Sheppard, W.; Rainforth, M.; Kondwani, K.; Smith, S.; and King, C. G. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820–827, 1995.
(17) Alexander, C. N.; Schneider, R. H.; Staggers, F; Sheppard, W.; Clayborne, B. M.; Rainforth, M.; Salerno, J.; Kondwani, K.; Smith, S.; Walton, K. G.; and Egan, B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 28: 228–237, 1996.
(18) Cooper, M. J., and Aygen, M. M. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah (the Journal of the Israel Medical Association) 95: 1–2, 1978.
(19) Wallace, R. K.; Silver, J.; Mills, P. J.; Dillbeck, M. C.; and Wagoner, D. E. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 45: 41–46, 1983.
(20) Cooper, M. J.; and Aygen, M. M. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5: 24–27, 1979.
(21) Subramanyam, S.; and Porkodi, K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.
(22) Zamarra, J. W.; Schneider, R. H.; Besseghini, I.; Robinson, D. K.; and Salerno, J. W. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. The American Journal of Cardiology 77: 867–870, 1996.
(23) Dillbeck, M. C.; and Orme-Johnson, D. W. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42: 879–881, 1987.
(24) Gallois, P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encéphale 10: 139–144, 1984.
(25) Honsberger, R. W.; and Wilson, A. F. The effect of Transcendental Meditation upon bronchial asthma. Clinical Research 21: 278 (Abstract), 1973.
(26) Honsberger, R. W.; and Wilson, A. F. Transcendental Meditation in treating asthma. Respiratory Therapy: The Journal of Inhalation Technology 3: 79–80, 1973.
(27) Wilson, A. F.; Honsberger, R. W.; Chiu, J. T.; and Novey, H. S. Transcendental Meditation and asthma. Respiration 32: 74–80, 1975.
(28) Gräf, D.; and Pfisterer, G. Der Nutzen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation für die ärztliche Praxis. Erfahrungsheilkunde (9): 594–596, 1978 .
(29) Wallace, R. K.; et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J. D. Zarafonetis, pp. 369–376. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972.
(30) Monahan, R. J. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. The International Journal of the Addictions 12: 729–754, 1977.
(31) Aron, E. N.; and Aron, A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28–33, 1983.
(32) Alexander, C. N.; Robinson, P.; and Rainforth, M. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.
(33) Royer, A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219–236, 1994.
(34) Banquet, J. P. EEG and meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 33: 454 (Abstract), 1972.
(35) Banquet, J. P. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35: 143–151, 1973.
(36) Banquet, J. P.; and Sailhan, M. EEG analysis of spontaneous and induced states of consciousness. Revue d’électroencéphalo-graphie et de neurophysiologie clinique 4: 445–453, 1974.
(37) Farrow, J. T.; and Herbert, J. R. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychosomatic Medicine 44: 133–153, 1982.
(38) Badawi, K.; Wallace, R. K.; Orme-Johnson, D.; and Rouzeré, A.-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46: 267–276, 1984.
(39) Dillbeck, M. C.; and Bronson, E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.
(40) Gaylord, C.; Orme-Johnson, D.; and Travis, F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77–86, 1989.
(41) Gaylord, C.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Willbanks, M.; Travis, F.; Rainforth, M.; and Reynolds, B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on self-concept and EEG coherence in black college students. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 96(1), A31–A32 (Abstract), 1989.
(42) Travis, F.; and Orme-Johnson, D. W. EEG coherence and power during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 54: 1–12, 1990.
(43) Jevning, R.; Smith, R.; Wilson A. F.; and Morton, M. E. Alterations in blood flow during Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 13: 168 (Abstract), 1976.
(44) Jevning, R.; Wilson, A. F.; Smith, W. R.; and Morton, M. E. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 235: R89–R92, 1978.
(45) Jevning, R.; and Wilson, A. F. Behavioral increase of cerebral blood flow. The Physiologist 21: 60 (Abstract), 1978.
(46) Jevning, R.; Anand, R.; Biedebach, M.; and Fernando, G. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of Transcendental Meditation. Physiology & Behavior 59: 399–402, 1996.
(47) Kobal, G.; Wandhöfer R, A.; and Plattig, K.-H. EEG power spectra and auditory evoked potentials in Transcendental Meditation (TM). Pflügers Archiv (Suppl.) 359: 191, R96 (Abstract), 1975.
(48) Wandhöfer, A.; Kobal, G.; and Plattig, K.-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrift für Elektroenzephalographie und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG 7: 99–103, 1976.
(49) Banquet, J. P.; and Lesèvre, N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness. Motivation, Motor and Sensory Processes of the Brain, Progress in Brain Research 54: 447–453, 1980.
(50) Goddard, P. H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.
(51) Cranson, R.; Goddard, P.; Orme-Johnson, D.; and Schuster, D. P300 under conditions of temporal uncertainty and filter attenuation: Reduced latency in long-term practitioners of TM. Psychophysiology 27 (Suppl. 4A): S23 (Abstract), 1990.
(52) Goddard, P. H. Transcendental Meditation as an intervention in the aging of neurocognitive function: Reduced age-related declines of P300 latencies in elderly practitioners. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(6): 3189B, 1992.
(53) Travis, F.; and Miskov, S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S98 (Abstract), 1994.
(54) Warshal, D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103–1106, 1980.
(55) Wallace, R. K.; Mills, P. J.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Dillbeck, M. C.; and Jacobe, E. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.
(56) Cranson, R. W.; Orme-Johnson, D.W.; Gackenbach, J.; Dillbeck, M. C.; Jones, C. H.; and Alexander, C. N. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105–1116, 1991.
(57) Lyubimov, N. N. Mobilization of the hidden reserves of the brain. Program Abstracts, International Symposium ‘Consciousness and Brain’, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, June 1992, p. 19.
(58) Orme-Johnson, D. W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341–349, 1973.
(59) Mills, P. J.; Schneider, R.; Hill, D.; Walton, K.; and Wallace, R. K. Lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors and cardiovascular responsivity in TM participants and Type A behavior. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 211, 1987.
(60) Dillbeck, M. C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem- solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207–215, 1982.
(61) Pelletier, K. R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974.
(62) Gelderloos, P.; Lockie, R. J.; and Chuttoorgoon, S. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.
(63) Dillbeck, M. C.; Assimakis, P. D.; Raimondi, D.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; and Rowe, R. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731–738, 1986.
(64) Appelle, S.; and Oswald, L. E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263–1268, 1974.
(65) Holt, W. R.; Caruso, J. L.; and Riley, J. B. Transcendental Meditation vs pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.
(66) Jedrczak, A.; Toomey, M.; and Clements, G. The TM-Sidhi Program, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161–164, 1986.
(67) Werner, O. R.; Wallace, R. K.; Charles, B.; Janssen, G.; Stryker, T.; and Chalmers, R. A. Long-term endocrinologic changes in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Psychosomatic Medicine 48: 59–65, 1986.
(68) Jevning, R.; Wells, I.; Wilson, A. F.; and Guich, S. Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, and insulin during acute hypometabolic states in man. Physiology & Behavior 40: 603–606, 1987.
(69) O’Halloran, J. P.; Jevning, R.; Wilson, A. F.; Skowsky R.; Walsh, R. N.; and Alexander, C. N. Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: Potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology & Behavior 35: 591–595, 1985.
(70) Tabogi, S. Effetti indotti dal programma di Meditazione Trascendentale sulla tolleranza glicidica. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy, 1983.
(71) Schneider, R. H.; Mills, P. J.; Schramm, W.; and Wallace, R. K. Luteinizing hormone: A marker for Type A behavior and its modification by the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 212–213, 1987.
(72) Glaser, J. L.; et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi Program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15: 327–341, 1992.
(73) Mills, P.J.; Schneider, R.H.; Hill, D.; Walton, K.G.; and Wallace, R.K. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 34: 29–33, 1990.
(74) Hill, D. A. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(8): 3330B, 1990.
(75) Smith, D. E.; Dillbeck, M. C.; and Sharma, H. M. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Transcendental Meditation. Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice 4: 35–37, 1997.
(76) Walton, K. G.; Brown, K. G.; Pugh, N.; MacLean, C.; and Gelderloos, P. Indole-mediated adaptation: Does melatonin mediate resistance to stress in humans? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16: 273, 1990.
(77) MacLean, C. R. K.; Walton, K. G.; Wenneberg, S. R.; Levitsky, D. K.; Mandarino, J. P.; Waziri, R.; Hillis, S. L.; and Schneider, R. H. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: Changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 22: 277–295, 1997.
(78) Walton, K. G.; Pugh, N. D. C.; Gelderloos, P.; Macrae, P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1: 263–283, 1995.
(79) Infante, J. R.; Peran, F.; Martinez, M.; Roldan, A.; Poyatos, R; Ruiz, C.; Samaniego, F.; and Garrido, F. ACTH and ß-endorphin in Transcendental Meditation. Physiology & Behavior 64: 311–315, 1998.
(80) Seiler, G.; and Seiler, V. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on periodontal tissue. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine (26): 8–12, 1979.
(81) Overbeck, K.-D. Auswirkungen der Technik der Tranzendentalen Meditation (TM) auf die psychische und psychosomatische Befindlichkeit. Psychotherapie•Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie 32: 188–192, 1982.
(82) Shaw, R. M.; and Dettmar, D. M. Monitoring behavioral stress control using a craniomandibular index. Australian Dental Journal 35: 147–151, 1990.
(83) Heidelberg, R. Transzendentale Meditation in der geburtshilflichen Psychoprophylaxe. Doctoral thesis, Medical Faculty, Free University of Berlin, West Berlin, W. Germany, 1979.
(84) Doan, M. J. Transcendental Meditation program as a prenatal factor in the quiet alert state in normal newborns. Summary of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of Young Children, Anaheim, California, November 1988.
(85) Shafii, M.; Lavely, R. A.; and Jaffe, R. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942–945, 1975.
(86) Brooks, J. S.; and Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212–215, 1985.
(87) Bielefeld, M. Transcendental Meditation: A stress reducing self-help support system. Cleveland V.A. Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 24 August 1981.
(88) Shafii, M.; Lavely, R. A.; and Jaffe, R. D. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60–63, 1974.
(89) Geisler, M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Drogenkonsumenten. Zeitschrift für klinische Psychologie 7: 235–255, 1978.
(90) Seeman, W.; Nidich, S.; and Banta, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184–187, 1972.
(91) Nidich, S.; Seeman, W.; and Dreskin, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565–566, 1973.
(92) Alexander, C. N.; Rainforth, M. V.; and Gelderloos, P. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta–analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–247, 1991.
(93) Dillbeck, M. C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076–1078, 1977.
(94) Eppley, K. R.; Abrams, A. I.; and Shear, J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957–974, 1989.
(95) Turnbull, M. J.; and Norris, H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality. British Journal of Psychology 73: 57–68, 1982.
(96) Abrams, A. I.; and Siegel, L. M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5: 3–20, 1978.
(97) Gelderloos, P. Psychological health and development of students at Maharishi International University: A controlled longitudinal study. Modern Science and Vedic Science 1: 471–487, 1987.
(98) Gelderloos, P.; Hermans, H. J. M.; Ahlström, H. H. B.; and Jacoby, R. Transcendence and psychological health: Studies with long-term participants of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Psychology 124: 177–197, 1990.
(99) Aron, E. N.; and Aron, A. Transcendental Meditation program and marital adjustment. Psychological Reports 51: 887–890, 1982.
(100) Marcus, S. V. The influence of the Transcendental Meditation program on the marital dyad. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(8): 3895B, 1977.
(101) Chen, M. E. A comparative study of dimensions of healthy functioning between families practicing the TM program for five years or for less than a year. Dissertation Abstracts International 45(10): 3206B, 1984.
(102) Candelent, T.; and Candelent, G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 26: 156–159, 1975.
(103) Wood, M. F. The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation as a means of improving the echolalic behavior of an autistic student. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Autism Research, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 14 July 1981. Reprinted in Scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected papers, Vol. 3, eds. R. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, and M. Weinless (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press): 1983–1989, 1989.
(104) Eyerman, J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35–36, 1981.
(105) Dillbeck, M. C. Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research 22: 399–418, 1990.
(106) Assimakis, P. D. Change in the quality of life in Canada: Intervention studies of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(5): 2203B, 1989.
(107) Assimakis, P. D.; and Dillbeck, M. C. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 76: 1171–1193, 1995.
(108) Dillbeck, M. C.; and Rainforth, M. V. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. American Statistical Association, 1996 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association) 38–43, 1996.
(109) Dillbeck, M. C.; Cavanaugh, K. L.; Glenn, T.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; and Mittlefehldt, V. Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 8: 67–104, 1987.
(110) Reeks, D. L. Improved quality of life in Iowa through the Maharishi Effect. Dissertation Abstracts International 51(12): 1991.
(111) Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Alexander, C. N.; Davies, J. L.; Chandler, H. M.; and Larimore, W. E. International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 776–812, 1988.
(112) Dillbeck, M. C.; Landrith III, G.; and Orme-Johnson, D. W. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 4: 25–45, 1981.
(113) Dillbeck, M. C.; Banus, C. B.; Polanzi, C.; and Landrith III, G. S. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 9: 457–486, 1988.
(114) Hatchard, G. D.; Deans, A. J.; Cavanaugh, K. L.; and Orme-Johnson, D.W. The Maharishi Effect: A model for social improvement: Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime, and Law 2: 165–174, 1996.
(115) Landrith III, G. S.; and Dillbeck, M. C. The growth of coherence in society through the Maharishi Effect: Reduced rates of suicides and auto accidents. In Scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected papers, Vol. 4, eds. R. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, and M. Weinless, (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press): 2479–2486, 1989.
(116) Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Dillbeck, M. C.; Bousquet, J. G.; and Alexander, C. N. The World Peace Project of 1978: An experimental analysis of achieving world peace through the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. In Scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected papers, Vol. 4, eds. R. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, and M. Weinless (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press): 2532–2548, 1989.
(117) Gelderloos, P.; Frid, M. J.; Goddard, P. H.; Xue, X.; and Löliger, S. A. Creating world peace through the collective practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: Improved U.S.-Soviet relations. Social Science Perspectives Journal 2(4): 80–94, 1988.
(118) Davies, J. L. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analyses of the Lebanon war. Dissertation Abstracts International 49(8): 2381A, 1988.
(119) Gelderloos, P.; Cavanaugh, K. L.; and Davies, J. L. A simultaneous transfer function model of U.S.-Soviet relations: A test of the Maharishi Effect. In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Science Statistics Section (Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association): 297–302, 1990.
(120) Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Cavanaugh, K. L.; Alexander, C. N.; Gelderloos, P.; Dillbeck, M.; Lanford, A. G.; and Abou Nader, T. M. The influence of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on world events and global social indicators: The effects of the Taste of Utopia Assembly. In Scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected papers, Vol. 4, eds. R. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, and M. Weinless (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press): 2730–2762, 1989.
(121) Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Dillbeck, M. C.; Alexander, C.; Chandler, H. M.; and Cranson, R. W. Time series impact assessment analysis of reduced international conflict and terrorism: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., August 1989. Reprinted in Scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected papers, Vol. 5, eds. R. K. Wallace, D. W. Orme-Johnson, and M. C. Dillbeck (Fairfield, Iowa: Maharishi International University Press): 3263–3264, 1990.
(122) Cavanaugh, K. L. Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association): 799–804, 1987.
(123) Cavanaugh, K. L.; and King, K. D. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association): 491–496, 1988.
(124) Cavanaugh, K. L.; King, K. D.; and Ertuna, C. A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun’s misery index: An empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association): 565–570, 1989.
(125) Cavanaugh, K. L.; King, K. D.; and Titus, B. D. Consciousness and the quality of economic life: Empirical research on the macroeconomic effects of the collective practice of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. In Proceedings of the Midwest Management Society, ed. R.G. Greenwood (Chicago, Illinois: Midwest Management Society): 183–190, 1989.
(126) Wallace, R. K. The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: The neurophysiology of enlightenment (Fairfield, IA: Maharishi International University Press): 1986.
(127) Sharma, H. M.; Nidich, S. I.; Sands, D.; and Smith, D. E. Improvement in cardiovascular risk factors through panchakarma purification procedures. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine XII(4): 2–13, 1993.
(128) Waldschütz, R. Verörenderungen physiologischer und pychischer Parameter durch eine ayurvedische Reinigungskur. Erfahrungsheilkunde—Acta Medica Empirica 11: 720–729, 1988.
(129) Schneider, R. H.; Cavanaugh, K. L.; Kasture, H. S.; Rothenberg, S.; Averbach, R., Rovbinson, D, and Wallace, R. K. Health promotion with a traditional system of natural health care: Maharishi Ayur-Veda. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 5: 1–27, 1990.
(130) Chandler, H. M.; Glaser, J. L.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; and Dillbeck, M. C. Improvements in memory, intelligence, psychomotor speed, alertness in normal subjects from an Ayur-Vedic medicinal herbal-based rejuvenation therapy. Paper presented at the Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Society of Economic Botany, Chicago, 23 June 1987.
(131) Dileepan, K. N.; Patel, V.; Sharma, H. M.; and Stechschulte, D. J. Priming of splenic lymphocytes after ingestion of anAyurvedic food supplement: Evidence for an immunomodulatory effect. Biochemical Archives 6: 267–274, 1990.
(132) Dileepan, K. N.; Varghese, S. T.; Page, J. C.; and Stechschulte, D. J. Enhanced lymphoproliferative response, macrophage mediated tumor cell killing and nitric oxide production after ingestion of an Ayurvedic drug. Biochemical Archives 9: 365–374, 1993.
(133) Inaba, R.; Sugiura, H.; Iwata, H.; Mori, H.; and Tanaka, T. Immunomodulation by Maharishi Amrit Kalash 4 in mice. Journal of Applied Nutrition 48: 10–21, 1996.
(134) Inaba, R.; Sugiura, H.; Iwata, H.; and Tanaka, T. Dose-dependent activation of immune function in mice by ingestion of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5. Experimental Health and Preventive Medicine 2: 35–39, 1997.
(135) Niwa, Y. Effect of Maharishi 4 and Maharishi 5 on inflammatory mediators—with special reference to their free radical scavenging effects. Indian Journal of Clinical Practice 1: 23-27, 1991.
(136) Dwivedi, C.; Sharma, H. M.; Dobrowski, S.; and Engineer, F. N. Inhibitory effects of Maharishi-4 and Maharishi-5 on microsomal lipid peroxidation. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior 39: 649-652, 1991.
(137) Engineer, F. N.; Sharma, H. M.; and Dwivedi, C. Protective effects of M-4 and M-5 on Adriamycin-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation and mortality. Biochemical Archives 8: 267-272, 1992.
(138) Sharma, H. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Hanna, A. N. In vivo effect of herbal mixture MAK-4 on antioxidant capacity of brain microsomes. Biochemical Archives 12: 181–186, 1996.
(139) Bondy, S. C.; Hernandez, T. M.; and Mattia, C. Antioxidant properties of two Ayurvedic herbal preparations. Biochemical Archives 10: 25–31, 1994.
(140) Sharma, H. M.; Feng, Y.; and Panganamala, R. V. Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK) prevents human platelet aggregation. Clinica & Terapia Cardiovascolare 8: 227-230, 1989.
(141) Sharma, H. M.; Hanna, A. N.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Newman, H. A. I. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by Maharishi Ayur-Veda herbal mixtures. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 43: 1175-1182, 1992.
(142) Hanna, A. N.; Sundaram, V.; Falko, J. M.; Stephens, R. E.; and Sharma, H. M. Effect of herbal mixtures MAK-4 and MAK-5 on susceptibility of human LDl to oxidation. Complementary Medicine International 3(3): 28–36, 1996.
(143) Dogra, J.; Grover, N.; Kumar, P.; and Aneja, N. Indigenous free radical scavenger MAK 4 and 5 in angina pectoris. It is only a placebo? Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 42: 466–467, 1994.
(144) Lee, J. Y.; Lott, J. A.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Sharma, H. M. Effect of the herbal mixture MAK-4 on organ functions in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. Journal of the Federation of Societies of Experimental Biology 9(3): A969 (Abstract), 1995.
(145) Lee, J. Y.; Hanna, A. N.; Lott, J. A.; and Sharma, H. M. The antioxidant and antiatherogenic effects of MAK-4 in WHHL rabbits. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2: 463–478, 1996.
(146) Sharma, H. M.; Dwivedi, C.; Satter, B. C.; Gudehithlu, K. P.; Abou-Issa, H.; Malarkey, W.; and Tejwani, G. A. (1990) Antineoplastic properties of Maharishi-4 against DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 35: 767-773, 1990.
(147) Sharma, H, M.; Krieger, J.; and Dwivedi, C. (1990) Antineoplastic properties of dietary Maharishi-4 and Maharishi-5 Ayurvedic food supplements. European Journal of Pharmacology 183: 193, 1990.
(148) Patel, V. K.; Wang, J.; Shen, R. N.; Sharma, H. M.; and Brahmi, Z. (1992) Reduction of metastases of Lewis Lung Carcinoma by an Ayurvedic food supplement in mice. Nutrition Research 12: 51-61, 1992.
(149) Prasad, K. N.; Edwards-Prasad, J.; Kentroti, S.; Brodie, C.; and Vernadakis, A. Ayurvedic (science of life) agents induce differentiation in murine neuroblastoma cells in culture. Neuropharmacology 31: 599-607,1992.
(150) Arnold, J. T.; Wilkinson, B. P.; Korytynski, E. A.; and Steele, V. E. Chemopreventive activity of Maharishi Amrit Kalash and related agents in rat tracheal epithelial and human tumor cells. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 21: 128 (Abstract), 1991.
(151) Misra, N. C.; Sharma, H. M.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ramakant; Srivastav, S.; Devi, V.; Kakkar, P.; Vishwanathan; Natu, S. M.; and Bogra, J. Anti-oxidant adjuvant therapy using a natural herbal mixture (MAK) during intensive chemotherapy: Reduction in toxicity. A prospective study of 62 patients. In Proceedings of the XVI International Cancer Congress, vol. 1, eds. R.S. Rao, M.G. Deo, and L.D. Sanghvi (Bologna, Italy: Monduzzi Editore ): 3099–3102, 1994.
(152) Sharma, H. M.; Guenther, J.; Abu-Ghazaleh, A.; and Dwivedi, C. (1994). Effects of Ayur-Vedic food supplement M-4 on cisplatin-induced changes in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase activity. In Proceedings of the XVI International Cancer Congress, vol. 1, eds. R.S. Rao, M.G. Deo, and L.D. Sanghvi (Bologna, Italy: Monduzzi Editore ): 589–592, 1994.
(153) Gelderloos, P.; Ahlström, H. H. B.; Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Robinson, D. K.; Wallace, R. K.; and Glaser, J. L. Influence of a Maharishi Ayur-Vedic herbal preparation on age-related visual discrimination. International Journal of Psychosomatics 37: 25-29, 1990.
(154) Hanna, A. N.; Sharma, H. M.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Newman, H. A. I. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by MA-631. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 48: 505–510, 1994.
(155) Sharma, H. M.; Hanna, A.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Newman, H.A.I. In vitro inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by MA-631, Student and Ladies Rasayana (SR & LR) and Maharishi Coffee Substitute (MCS). Pharmacologist 34: 184 (Abstract), 1992.
(156) Hanna, A. N.; Sharma, H. M.; Lubow, G. P.; Titterington, L. C.; and Stephens, R. E. Possible mechanism of action of Student Rasayana (SR) for improving brain functioning. Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology Journal 8(5): A658 (Abstract), 1994.
(157) Kauffman, E. M.; Hanna, A. N.; Newman, H. A. I.; and Sharma, H. M. In vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effects of the Maharishi Ayur-Veda herbal compound Student Rasayana (SR). Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology Journal 7(3): A347 (Abstract), 1993.
(158) Sharma, H. M.; Hanna, A. N.; Kauffman, E. M.; and Newman, H. A. I. Effect of herbal mixture Student Rasayana on lipoxygenase activity and lipid peroxidation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 18: 687–697, 1995.
(159) Sircar, A. R.; Ahuja, R. C.; Natu, S. M.; Roy, B.; and Sharma, H. M. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and general beneficial effects of an herbal preparation MA-471. Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice 3(5): 26–31, 1996.
(160) Nader, T.; Buehe, D.; and Newberne, P. Ayurvedic rasayana protects against kidney and liver damage in rats fed a by low-lipotrope, high-fat diet. Federation Proceedings 46: 3 (Abstract), 1987.
(161) Nidich, S. I.; Moorhead, P.; Nidich, R. J.; Sands, D.; Sharma, H. The effect of the Maharishi Student Rasayana food supplement on non-verbal intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences 15: 599–602, 1993.
(162) Cunningham, C.H.; Brown, S.; and Kaski, J.C. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome. American Journal of Cardiology 85(5): 653-655, 2000.
(163) Castillo-Richmond, A.; Schneider, R. H.; Alexander, C. N.; Cook, R.; Myers, H.; Nidich, S.; Haney, C.; Rainforth, M.; and Salerno, J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 31: 568–573, 2000.
1 Refer to Scientific Research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, Volumes 1–6 (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press).
2 Refer to Professor Nader’s book, Human physiology: Expression of Veda and the Vedic Literature, Fifth edition (Vlodrop, Netherlands: Maharishi Vedic University Press): 1999. For the discoveries contained in this research Professor Nader was awarded his weight in gold in February 1998.